BeamBeam3D is a three-dimensional, parallel particle-in-cell code for modeling strong-strong or strong-weak beam-beam interactions in high-energy ring colliders. This code includes

- A self-consistent calculation of the electromagnetic forces between two colliding beams (i.e., strong-strong modeling).
- A soft-Gaussian approximation of the beam-beam forces.
- A linear transfer map model for beam transport between collision points.
- A stochastic map to treat radiation damping; quantum excitation.
- An arbitrary-orbit-separation model.
- A single map to account for chromaticity effects.
- Models of conducting wire, crab cavities; and electron lenses for beam-beam compensation.

It can handle multiple bunches from each beam collision at multiple interaction points (IPs) with arbitrary separation and crossing angle.

The parallel implementation is done using a particle-field decomposition method to achieve load balance.

BeamBeam3D has been applied to studies of the beam-beam effects at a number of colliders worldwide, such as RHIC, the Tevatron, LHC, PEP-II, and KEK-B. Shown here is a BeamBeam3D visualization of colliding bunches in the Tevatron, courtesy Eric G. Stern of Fermilab. |

## To Learn More…

Ji Qiang’s BeamBeam3D page in the Accelerator Modeling and Advanced Computation Group.

Shan, Strohmeier, Qiang, Bailey, and Yelick, “Performance Modeling and Optimization of a High Energy Colliding Beam Simulation Code”, article no. 97 in *Proceedings* of SC’06, the 2006 ACM/IEEE Conference on Supercomputing, contains a description of how the code operates.

Qiang, Lidia, Ryne, and Limborg-Deprey, “Three-dimensional quasistatic model for high brightness beam dynamics simulation,” in Physical Review Special Topics— and Beams <http://prst-ab.aps.org/abstract/PRSTAB/v9/i4/e044204″ target=”new”> **9**, 044204 (2006).

Qiang, Furman, Ryne, Fischer, and Ohmi, “Recent advances of strong–strong beam–beam simulation,” in Proceedings of ICAP’04, the 8th International Conference on Computational Accelerator Physics (St. Petersburg, Russia, June 29-July 2, 2004), Nucl. Instrum. Methods A **558**, 1 (2006), pp. 351-355. *This is a paywalled commercial publication; you might have access through your institution or a library.*

Qiang, Furman, and Ryne, “Strong-strong beam-beam simulation using a Green function approach,” in Physical Review Special Topics— and Beams **5**, 104402 (2002), is a seminal paper in the history of what would become BeamBeam3D.

The BeamBeam3D ecosystem incorporates a number of extensions performed by and for the Tevatron.

BeamBeam3D description and availability via CERN.